Fallacy Bot

Tweet any of these hashtags and mention @fallacy_bot_ and Fallacy Bot will reply with the definition.

The definitions come from Wikipedia.

Hashtag Name Definition
#AccidentFallacy Accident Fallacy an exception to a generalization is ignored.
#AdHominem Ad hominem attacking the arguer instead of the argument. (Note that "ad hominem" can also refer to the dialectical strategy of arguing on the basis of the opponent's own commitments. This type of ad hominem is not a fallacy.)
#AffirmingADisjunct Affirming a disjunct concluding that one disjunct of a logical disjunction must be false because the other disjunct is true; A or B; A, therefore not B.
#AffirmingTheConsequent Affirming the consequent the antecedent in an indicative conditional is claimed to be true because the consequent is true; if A, then B; B, therefore A.
#AmbiguousMiddleTerm Ambiguous middle term using a middle term with multiple meanings.
#AppealToAccomplishment Appeal to accomplishment an assertion is deemed true or false based on the accomplishments of the proposer. This may often also have elements of appeal to emotion (see below).
#AppealToAuthority Appeal to authority (argument from authority, argumentum ad verecundiam) an assertion is deemed true because of the position or authority of the person asserting it.
#AppealToConsequences Appeal to consequences (argumentum ad consequentiam) the conclusion is supported by a premise that asserts positive or negative consequences from some course of action in an attempt to distract from the initial discussion.
#AppealToEmotion Appeal to emotion manipulating the emotions of the listener rather than using valid reasoning to obtain common agreement.
#AppealToFear Appeal to fear generating distress, anxiety, cynicism, or prejudice towards the opponent in an argument
#AppealToFlattery Appeal to flattery using excessive or insincere praise to obtain common agreement.
#AppealToForce Argumentum ad baculum (appeal to the stick, appeal to force, appeal to threat) an argument made through coercion or threats of force to support position.
#AppealToHypocrisy Appeal to hypocrisy (Tu quoque, you too, whataboutism) stating that a position is false, wrong, or should be disregarded because its proponent fails to act consistently in accordance with it.
#AppealToMotive Appeal to motive dismissing an idea by questioning the motives of its proposer.
#AppealToNature Appeal to nature judgment is based solely on whether the subject of judgment is 'natural' or 'unnatural'. (Sometimes also called the "naturalistic fallacy", but is not to be confused with the other fallacies by that name.)
#AppealToNovelty Appeal to novelty (argumentum novitatis, argumentum ad antiquitatis) a proposal is claimed to be superior or better solely because it is new or modern. (opposite of appeal to tradition)
#AppealToPity Appeal to pity (argumentum ad misericordiam) generating feelings of sympathy or mercy in the listener to obtain common agreement.
#AppealToPoverty Appeal to poverty (argumentum ad Lazarum) supporting a conclusion because the arguer is poor (or refuting because the arguer is wealthy). (Opposite of appeal to wealth.)
#AppealToProbability Appeal to probability a statement that takes something for granted because it would probably be the case (or might be the case).
#AppealToRidicule Appeal to ridicule (reductio ad ridiculum, reductio ad absurdum, ad absurdum) mocking or stating that the opponent's position is laughable to deflect from the merits of the opponent's argument.
#AppealToSpite Appeal to spite generating bitterness or hostility in the listener toward an opponent in an argument.
#AppealToStone Appeal to the stone (argumentum ad lapidem) dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity.
#AppealToTradition Appeal to tradition (argumentum ad antiquitatem) a conclusion supported solely because it has long been held to be true.
#AppealToWealth Appeal to wealth (argumentum ad crumenam) supporting a conclusion because the arguer is wealthy (or refuting because the arguer is poor). (Sometimes taken together with the appeal to poverty as a general appeal to the arguer's financial situation.)
#ArgumentFromFallacy Argument from fallacy (the fallacy fallacy) the assumption that, if an argument is fallacious, then the conclusion is false.
#ArgumentFromIgnorance Argument from ignorance (appeal to ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam) assuming that a claim is true because it has not been or cannot be proven false, or vice versa.
#ArgumentFromIncredulity Argument from incredulity (appeal to common sense) "I cannot imagine how this could be true; therefore, it must be false."
#ArgumentFromRepetition Argument from repetition (argumentum ad nauseam, argumentum ad infinitum) repeating an argument until nobody cares to discuss it any more; sometimes confused with proof by assertion
#ArgumentFromSilence Argument from silence (argumentum ex silentio) assuming that a claim is true based on the absence of textual or spoken evidence from an authoritative source, or vice versa.
#ArgumentToModeration Argument to moderation (false compromise, middle ground, fallacy of the mean, argumentum ad temperantiam) assuming that a compromise between two positions is always correct.
#AssociationFallacy Association fallacy (guilt by association and honor by association) arguing that because two things share (or are implied to share) some property, they are the same.
#BaconianFallacy Baconian fallacy using pieces of historical evidence without the aid of specific methods, hypotheses, or theories in an attempt to make a general truth about the past. Commits historians "to the pursuit of an impossible object by an impracticable method".
#BandwagonArgument Argumentum ad populum (appeal to widespread belief, bandwagon argument, appeal to the majority, appeal to the people) a proposition is claimed to be true or good solely because a majority or many people believe it to be so.
#BareAssertion Ipse dixit (bare assertion fallacy) a claim that is presented as true without support, as self-evidently true, or as dogmatically true. This fallacy relies on the implied expertise of the speaker or on an unstated truism.
#BaseRateFallacy Base rate fallacy making a probability judgment based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities.
#BeggingTheQuestion Begging the question (petitio principii) using the conclusion of the argument in support of itself in a premise (e.g.: saying that smoking cigarettes is deadly because cigarettes can kill you; something that kills is deadly).
#CherryPicking Cherry picking (suppressed evidence, incomplete evidence) using individual cases or data that confirm a particular position, while ignoring related cases or data that may contradict that position.
#ChronologicalSnobbery Chronological snobbery a thesis is deemed incorrect because it was commonly held when something else, known to be false, was also commonly held.
#CircularReasoning Circular reasoning (circulus in demonstrando) the reasoner begins with what he or she is trying to end up with (e.g.: all bachelors are unmarried males).
#CircumstantialAdHominem Circumstantial ad hominem stating that the arguer's personal situation or perceived benefit from advancing a conclusion means that their conclusion is wrong.
#ConjunctionFallacy Conjunction fallacy the assumption that an outcome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying a single one of them.
#Contextomy Fallacy of quoting out of context (contextotomy, contextomy; quotation mining) selective excerpting of words from their original context to distort the intended meaning.
#ContinuumFallacy Continuum fallacy (fallacy of the beard, line-drawing fallacy, sorites fallacy, fallacy of the heap, bald man fallacy, decision-point fallacy) improperly rejecting a claim for being imprecise.
#CourtiersReply Courtier's reply a criticism is dismissed by claiming that the critic lacks sufficient knowledge, credentials, or training to credibly comment on the subject matter.
#CumHocErgoPropterHoc Cum hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for "with this, therefore because of this"; correlation implies causation; faulty cause/effect, coincidental correlation, correlation without causation) a faulty assumption that, because there is a correlation between two variables, one caused the other.
#DefinistFallacy Definist fallacy defining a term used in an argument in a biased manner (e.g., using "loaded terms"). The person making the argument expects that the listener will accept the provided definition, making the argument difficult to refute.
#DefinitionalRetreat Definitional retreat changing the meaning of a word when an objection is raised. when an argument is challenged using a common definition of a term in the argument, and the arguer presents a different definition of the term and thereby demands different evidence to debunk the argument.
#DenyingTheAntecedent Denying the antecedent the consequent in an indicative conditional is claimed to be false because the antecedent is false; if A, then B; not A, therefore not B.
#DivineFallacy Divine fallacy (argument from incredulity) arguing that, because something is so incredible or amazing, it must be the result of superior, divine, alien or paranormal agency.
#DoubleCounting Double counting counting events or occurrences more than once in probabilistic reasoning, which leads to the sum of the probabilities of all cases exceeding unity.
#EcologicalFallacy Ecological fallacy inferring about the nature of an entity based solely upon aggregate statistics collected for the group to which that entity belongs.
#EquivocationFallacy Equivocation using a term with more than one meaning in a statement without specifying which meaning is intended.
#EtymologicalFallacy Etymological fallacy assuming that the original or historical meaning of a word or phrase is necessarily similar to its actual present-day usage.
#ExclusivePremises Fallacy of exclusive premises a categorical syllogism that is invalid because both of its premises are negative.
#ExistentialFallacy Existential fallacy an argument that has a universal premise and a particular conclusion.
#FallacyOfAccent Fallacy of accent changing the meaning of a statement by not specifying on which word emphasis falls.
#FallacyOfComposition Fallacy of composition assuming that something true of part of a whole must also be true of the whole.
#FallacyOfDivision Fallacy of division assuming that something true of a composite thing must also be true of all or some of its parts.
#FallacyOfFourTerms Fallacy of four terms (quaternio terminorum) a categorical syllogism that has four terms.
#FallacyOfManyQuestions Fallacy of many questions (complex question, fallacy of presuppositions, loaded question, plurium interrogationum) someone asks a question that presupposes something that has not been proven or accepted by all the people involved. This fallacy is often used rhetorically so that the question limits direct replies to those that serve the questioner's agenda.
#FallacyOfSingleCause Fallacy of the single cause (causal oversimplification) it is assumed that there is one, simple cause of an outcome when in reality it may have been caused by a number of only jointly sufficient causes.
#FalseAnalogy False analogy an argument by analogy in which the analogy is poorly suited.
#FalseAttribution False attribution appealing to an irrelevant, unqualified, unidentified, biased or fabricated source in support of an argument.
#FalseAuthority False authority (single authority) using an expert of dubious credentials or using only one opinion to promote a product or idea. Related to the appeal to authority.
#FalseDichotomy False dilemma (false dichotomy, fallacy of bifurcation, black-or-white fallacy) two alternative statements are given as the only possible options when, in reality, there are more.
#FalseEquivalence False equivalence describing two or more statements as virtually equal when they are not.
#FeedbackFallacy Feedback fallacy believing in the objectivity of an evaluation to be used as the basis for improvement without verifying that the source of the evaluation is a disinterested party.
#FurtiveFallacy Furtive fallacy outcomes are asserted to have been caused by the malfeasance of decision makers.
#GamblersFallacy Gambler's fallacy the incorrect belief that separate, independent events can affect the likelihood of another random event. If a fair coin lands on heads 10 times in a row, the belief that it is "due to the number of times it had previously landed on tails" is incorrect.
#GeneticFallacy Genetic fallacy a conclusion is suggested based solely on something or someone's origin rather than its current meaning or context.
#HastyGeneralization Hasty generalization (fallacy of insufficient statistics, fallacy of insufficient sample, fallacy of the lonely fact, hasty induction, secundum quid, converse accident, jumping to conclusions) basing a broad conclusion on a small or unrepresentative sample.
#HistoriansFallacy Historian's fallacy assuming that decision makers of the past had identical information as those subsequently analyzing the decision. This should not to be confused with presentism, in which present-day ideas and perspectives are anachronistically projected into the past.
#HistoricalFallacy Historical fallacy a set of considerations is thought to hold good only because a completed process is read into the content of the process which conditions this completed result.
#HomunculusFallacy Homunculus fallacy a fallacy whereby a concept is explained in terms of the concept itself, recursively, without first defining or explaining the original concept. for example, one may explain human vision by noting that light from the outside world forms an image on the retinas in the eyes and the brain looks at these images
#IfByWhiskey If-by-whiskey an argument that supports both sides of an issue by using terms that are emotionally sensitive and ambiguous.
#IgnoringCommonCause Ignoring a common cause one of the questionable cause fallacies
#IllicitAffirmative Negative conclusion from affirmative premises (illicit affirmative) a categorical syllogism has a negative conclusion but affirmative premises.
#IllicitMajor Illicit major a categorical syllogism that is invalid because its major term is not distributed in the major premise but distributed in the conclusion.
#IllicitMinor Illicit minor a categorical syllogism that is invalid because its minor term is not distributed in the minor premise but distributed in the conclusion.
#IllicitNegative Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise (illicit negative) a categorical syllogism has a positive conclusion, but at least one negative premise.
#ImEntitledToMyOpinion I'm entitled to my opinion a person discredits any opposition by claiming that they are entitled to their opinion.
#IncompleteComparison Incomplete comparison insufficient information is provided to make a complete comparison.
#InconsistentComparison Inconsistent comparison different methods of comparison are used, leaving a false impression of the whole comparison.
#InductiveFallacy Inductive fallacy a more general name for a class of fallacies, including hasty generalization and its relatives. A fallacy of induction happens when a conclusion is draw from premises that only lightly support it.
#InflactionOfConflict Inflation of conflict arguing that, if experts in a field of knowledge disagree on a certain point within that field, no conclusion can be reached or that the legitimacy of that field of knowledge is questionable.
#IntentionalityFallacy Intentionality fallacy the insistence that the ultimate meaning of an expression must be consistent with the intention of the person from whom the communication originated (e.g. a work of fiction that is widely received as a blatant allegory must necessarily not be regarded as such if the author intended it not to be so).
#IrrelevantConclusion Irrelevant conclusion (Ignoratio elenchi, missing the point) an argument that may in itself be valid, but does not address the issue in question.
#IsOughtFallacy Is–ought fallacy claims about what ought to be, on the basis of what is.
#JudgementalLanguage Judgmental language using insulting or pejorative language in an argument.
#KafkaTrapping Kafka-trapping a sophistical and unfalsifiable form of argument that attempts to overcome an opponent by inducing a sense of guilt and using the opponent's denial of guilt as further evidence of guilt.
#KettleLogic Kettle logic using multiple, jointly inconsistent arguments to defend a position.
#LoadedLabel Loaded label Fallacy while not inherently fallacious, use of evocative terms to support a conclusion is a type of begging the question fallacy. When fallaciously used, the term's connotations are relied on to sway the argument towards a particular conclusion.
#LudicFallacy Ludic fallacy failing to take into account that non-regulated random occurrences unknown unknowns can affect the probability of an event taking place.
#LumpOfLabor Lump of labor fallacy the misconception that there is a fixed amount of work to be done within an economy, which can be distributed to create more or fewer jobs.
#MagicalThinking Magical thinking fallacious attribution of causal relationships between actions and events
#MaskedManFallacy Masked-man fallacy (illicit substitution of identicals) the substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one.
#MindProjection Mind projection fallacy assuming that a statement about an object describes an inherent property of the object, rather than a personal perception.
#MisleadingVividness Misleading vividness involves describing an occurrence in vivid detail, even if it is an exceptional occurrence, to convince someone that it is more important; this also relies on the appeal to emotion fallacy.
#ModalFallacy Modal fallacy confusing necessity with sufficiency. A condition X is necessary for Y if X is required for even the possibility of Y. X doesn’t bring about Y by itself, but if there is no X, there will be no Y. For example, oxygen is necessary for fire. But one cannot assume that everywhere there is oxygen, there is fire.
#ModalScopeFallacy Modal scope fallacy a degree of unwarranted necessity is placed in the conclusion.
#MoralisticFallacy Moralistic fallacy inferring factual conclusions from evaluative premises in violation of fact–value distinction (e.g.: inferring is from ought). Moralistic fallacy is the inverse of naturalistic fallacy.
#MotteAndBailey Motte-and-bailey fallacy conflating two positions with similar properties, one modest and easy to defend (the "motte") and one more controversial (the "bailey"). The arguer first states the controversial position, but when challenged, states that they are advancing the modest position.
#MovingTheGoalposts Moving the goalposts (raising the bar) argument in which evidence presented in response to a specific claim is dismissed and some other (often greater) evidence is demanded.
#NaturalisticFallacy Naturalistic fallacy inferring evaluative conclusions from purely factual premises in violation of fact-value distinction. Naturalistic fallacy (sometimes confused with appeal to nature) is the inverse of moralistic fallacy.
#NaturalisticFallacyFallacy Naturalistic fallacy fallacy (anti-naturalistic fallacy) inferring an impossibility to infer any instance of ought from is from the general invalidity of is-ought fallacy
#NirvanaFallacy Nirvana fallacy (perfect-solution fallacy) solutions to problems are rejected because they are not perfect.
#NoTrueScotsman No true Scotsman makes a generalization true by changing the generalization to exclude a counterexample.
#NutPicking Nut-picking (suppressed evidence, incomplete evidence) using individual cases or data that falsifies a particular position, while ignoring related cases or data that may support. Named in contrast to Cherry Picking.
#OverwhelmingException Overwhelming exception an accurate generalization that comes with qualifications that eliminate so many cases that what remains is much less impressive than the initial statement might have led one to assume.
#PersuasiveDefinition Persuasive definition purporting to use the "true" or "commonly accepted" meaning of a term while, in reality, using an uncommon or altered definition.
#PoisoningTheWell Poisoning the well a subtype of ad hominem presenting adverse information about a target person with the intention of discrediting everything that the target person says.
#PoohPooh Pooh-pooh stating that an opponent's argument is unworthy of consideration.
#PostHocErgoPropterHoc Post hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for "after this, therefore because of this"; temporal sequence implies causation) X happened, then Y happened; therefore X caused Y.
#ProofByAssertion Proof by assertion a proposition is repeatedly restated regardless of contradiction; sometimes confused with argument from repetition (argumentum ad infinitum, argumentum ad nauseam)
#ProsecutorsFallacy Prosecutor's fallacy a low probability of false matches does not mean a low probability of some false match being found.
#ProvingTooMuch Proving too much an argument that results in an overly-generalized conclusion (e.g.: arguing that drinking alcohol is bad because in some instances it has led to spousal or child abuse).
#PschogeneticFallacy Bulverism (psychogenetic fallacy) inferring why an argument is being used, associating it to some psychological reason, then assuming it is invalid as a result. The assumption that if the origin of an idea comes from a biased mind, then the idea itself must also be a falsehood.
#PsychologistsFallacy Psychologist's fallacy an observer presupposes the objectivity of their own perspective when analyzing a behavioral event.
#QuantitativeFallacy Quantitative fallacy (McNamara fallacy) making an argument using only quantitative observations (measurements, statistical or numerical values) and discounting subjective information that focuses on quality (traits, features, or relationships).
#RedHerring Red herring introducing a second argument in response to the first argument that is irrelevant and draws attention away from the original topic
#ReferentialFallacy Referential fallacy The assumption that it is a necessary condition of a term that its meaning exists in the world
#RegressionFallacy Regression fallacy ascribes cause where none exists. The flaw is failing to account for natural fluctuations. It is frequently a special kind of post hoc fallacy.
#Reification Reification (concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) treating an abstract belief or hypothetical construct as if it were a concrete, real event or physical entity (e.g.: saying that evolution selects which traits are passed on to future generations; evolution is not a conscious entity with agency).
#RelativePrivation Fallacy of relative privation (also known as "appeal to worse problems" or "not as bad as") dismissing an argument or complaint due to what are perceived to be more important problems. First World problems are a subset of this fallacy.
#RetrospectiveDeterminism Retrospective determinism believing that, because an event has occurred under some circumstance, the circumstance must have made the event inevitable (e.g.: because someone won the lottery while wearing their lucky socks, wearing those socks made winning the lottery inevitable).
#SlipperySlope Slippery slope (thin edge of the wedge, camel's nose) asserting that a proposed, relatively small, first action will inevitably lead to a chain of related events resulting in a significant and negative event and, therefore, should not be permitted.
#SpecialPleading Special pleading the arguer attempts to cite something as an exemption to a generally accepted rule or principle without justifying the exemption (e.g.: a defendant who murdered his parents asks for leniency because he is now an orphan).
#StrawMan Straw man fallacy misrepresenting an opponent's argument by broadening or narrowing the scope of a premise and refuting a weaker version
#SuppressedCorrelative Suppressed correlative a correlative is redefined so that one alternative is made impossible (e.g., "I'm not fat because I'm thinner than him").
#SurvivorshipBias Survivorship bias a small number of successes of a given process are actively promoted while completely ignoring a large number of failures
#TexasSharpshooter Texas sharpshooter fallacy improperly asserting a cause to explain a cluster of data.
#ThoughtTerminatingCliche Thought-terminating cliché a commonly used phrase, sometimes passing as folk wisdom, used to quell cognitive dissonance, conceal lack of forethought, move on to other topics, etc. – but in any case, to end the debate with a cliché rather than a point.
#TonePolicing Tone policing focusing on emotion behind (or resulting from) a message rather than the message itself as a discrediting tactic.
#TraitorousCritic Traitorous critic fallacy (ergo decedo, 'thus leave') a critic's perceived affiliation is portrayed as the underlying reason for the criticism and the critic is asked to stay away from the issue altogether. Easily confused with the association fallacy ("guilt by association") below.
#TwoWrongsMakeARight Two wrongs make a right assuming that, if one wrong is committed, another wrong will rectify it.
#UndistributedMiddle Fallacy of the undistributed middle the middle term in a categorical syllogism is not distributed.
#VacuousTruth Vacuous truth a claim that is technically true but meaningless, in the form no A in B has C, when there is no A in B. For example, claiming that no mobile phones in the room are on when there are no mobile phones in the room.
#WishfulThinking Wishful thinking arguing for a course of action by the listener according to what might be pleasing to imagine rather than according to evidence or reason.
#WrongDirectionFallacy Wrong direction (reverse causation) cause and effect are reversed. The cause is said to be the effect and vice versa. The consequence of the phenomenon is claimed to be its root cause.